National Curriculum Framework (NCF) – 2005
The ‘National Council for Education Research and Training (NCERT)’ developed the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) in the year 2005 to fulfill the changing needs of the learners and emphasized learner centred approaches. The suggestions made by NCF include:
- Cutting down on the number of textbooks.
- More flexibility of teaching methods and promoting a more inclusive learning method.
- Allow students to connect knowledge to life outside the school.
- Shifts away from rote memorization and promotes inquiry-based curriculum based on heuristic reasoning. Challenged to think and not simply repeat what they are told.
- The curricular content and its translation must be relevant to the learners so that they become constructors of knowledge.
- Making learning a more exciting experience
- Learn from each other rather than defeat the others.
- Goals of education should be problem-solving, reasoning, critical thinking skills, the active and reflective uses of language, and self-regulation skills.
- It regards the teacher as a facilitator.
- It considers English as one of the languages for learning activities that create the child’s awareness of the world.
- It favors inclusive education, i.e., all children especially the differently-abled, children from marginalized sections, and children in difficult circumstances get the maximum benefit of education.
- Avoid corporal punishment to create fearless learning.
NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (NPE)
- The National Policy on Education (NPE) is a policy formulated by the Government of India to promote education among India’s people.
- The first NPE was promulgated in 1968 based on the report and recommendations of the Education Commission (1964-1966).
- The policy called for fulfilling compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, as stipulated by the Constitution of India, and the better training and qualification of teachers. The policy also called for a focus on the learning of regional languages, outlining the ‘three language formula’.
- The policy also encouraged the teaching of the ancient Sanskrit language, which was considered an essential part of India’s culture and heritage.
- The government of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a new National Policy on Education in May, 1986. The new policy called for ‘special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity, especially for Indian women, Scheduled Tribes (ST), and the Scheduled Caste (SC) communities.
- The NPE (1986) called for a ‘child-centered approach’ in primary education and launched ‘Operation Blackboard’ to improve primary schools nationwide.
- The policy expanded the open-university system with the Indira Gandhi National Open University. The policy also called for the creation of the rural university’ model, based on the philosophy of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi, to promote economic and social development at the grassroots levels in rural India.
- The 1986 National Policy on Education was modified in 1992 by the P.V.
- Narasimha Rao government, which envisaged the conduct of a common entrance examination on all India basis for admission to professional and technical programs in the country.