Teacher and Teaching Aids

Teacher and Teaching Aids


Karl Menninger said, “What the teacher is, is more important than what he teaches.” This statement underlines the importance of a teacher. Schools and teachers can greatly influence the extent and quality of learning. It is the teacher who makes learning easy or difficult. Thus, in the present scenario, where knowledge is not ‘imported’ but ‘created’, the English teacher plays an active role as friend, guide and facilitator. He/she serves as a model for the learners, thus all his/her activities, reading, recitation and writing should be accurate.

He has to make the class active and learning meaningful. Today the role of teacher is shifting from sage on the stage to guide on the side but he is the implementer of education. While in a language classroom, particularly English, the teacher has to consider the following points:


  • Know the backgrounds of the learners so as to understand non-academic or social factors that may impact their behaviour, participation and learning.
  • Consider individual differences in development and learning needs, which will help in child-centred instruction.
  • Consider inadequacies in the learning content, process and environment rather than inadequa- cies in the learner.
  • Know what to teach and how to teach.
  • Follow eclecticism i.e. using ap- propriate strategies from different methods.
  • Make sitting arrangement flexible so that each learner will get oppor- tunity to interact with the teacher.
  • Know that teaching is a participatory process, thus there should be positive teacher-student relationship.
  • Promote confidence and ask them to believe in themselves and theirown abilities.
  • Teach values and social skills.
  • Provide ample opportunities which will create interest and minimise behaviour problems and help the learners to use the language meaningfully.
  • Can use the learner’s language as a resource. This can be helpful for the teacher who does not have a fair knowledge of the mother tongue of the students.
  • Establish the relationship between the previous knowledge and the new knowledge which will help in the construction of new knowledge.
  • Consider that learners are heterogeneous in knowledge and skill.
  • Provide inputs from the target language in a simple, graded manner.
  • Promote task-based learning, i.e. engaged children in activities.
  • Consider that interaction/activities promote effective learning. It promotes child-centred learning.
  • Consider that language is acquired when it is used in real situations.
  • Consider that learner’s first lan- guage plays an important role in learning, thus multilingualism must be used as a resource and classroom strategy. Multilingualism is an asset in learning a new language.
  • Consider that language teaching should have a focus in communicative activities.
  • Consider that noise in the class does not mean indiscipline but it shows that the learners are engaged in constructive activities, which promotes child-centred learning.
  • Allow them to explore, discover structures of a language by themselves, i.e. promoting humanistic approach.
  • Consider that classroom manage- ment is an integral part of effective teaching and helps in preventing behaviour problems. This can be done by

◆ improved planning
◆ organising and managing class-room activities
◆ better presentation of instruc- tional materials
◆ better teacher-student interaction
◆ flexible sitting arrangement

  • Denounce disciplinary or behav- iour control techniques such as punishment as these are less effec- tive and do not promote the development of a self-concept responsibility.
  • Consider that, interest-satisfying teaching motivates the learners more effectively.
  • Use images and diagrams, i.e. iconic modes.


There are four general orientations to second language methods and approaches.
These are

1. Structural/Linguistic

It is based on beliefs about the structure of language and descriptive linguistics.
It involves isolation of grammatical and syntactic elements of second language either deductively or inductively.

2. Cognitive

It focuses on the learning strategies that are compatible with the learner’s own style.

Second language content is selected according to concepts and techniques that facilitate generalizations about the language.

3. Affective/Interpersonal

It emphasises interaction between teacher, students and the environment.
It emphasises learner’s motivation for learning.

4. Functional/Communicative

It emphasises selection of language structures according to their usefulness
in achieving a communicative purpose.

Teaching AlDS/Teaching Learning Material

A teacher uses aids and materials to make learning more effective. These aids and materials are called teaching aids or instructional materials. A good teaching learning material facilitates the teaching learning process. The selection of teaching aids depends on the objectives of teaching These teaching aids serve the following purposes:

  • They supplement oral teaching
  • They act as a motivator.
  • They prevent monotony and create interests.
  • They prevent indiscipline.
  • They make learning permanent.
  • They save time and energy of the teacher
  • They keep the learners engaged.
  • They provide direct experience.

Types of Teaching Aids

Teaching aids are categorised as follows:

1. Visual Aids
These aids include

  • Blackboard, flannel boards, etc
  • Charts, maps, pictures, etc.
  • Models: static (stationary) or working models.
  • Film strip, slide projector
  • Over-head projector (OHP)
  • Newspaper, magazines, etc.
  • Museums, educational tours

2. Audio Aids

These aids include

  •  Audio cassette player
  • Radio

3. Audio-Visual Aids

These aids include

  • Video cassette player (VCP)
  • Video compact disc player (VCD)
  • Television
  • Film projector

4. Language Laboratory

  • It is a place where the learners listen on headphone.
  • It helps in developing good speech habit.
  • Learners can themselves recordtheir own voice and listen.

5. Computer-Assisted Language Learning

  • It is a new innovation in education.
  • It includes texts, graphics, audio and video aids.

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